Categories of Skin Care: – Under the vast umbrella of cosmetics, two categories of products are included: makeup and skin care. Lipsticks, foundation, mascara, eye shadow, and blush are cosmetic products, while lotions and creams, sunscreens, serums, massage oils, creams and lotions for babies, face masks, scrubs, hand sanitizers, and more are skin care products. Lotions and creams are the most commonly used skin care products, but there are many other less common formulations as well, including solutions, suspensions, gels, oils, ointments, and balms.
Creams and Lotions: Creams and lotions are emulsions formed by dispersing an oil phase into an aqueous phase or an aqueous phase into an oil phase. As a result, emulsions containing oil in water or oil in water are known as emulsions containing oil in water or oil in oil. Since lotions do not leave a greasy residue and are more pleasant to touch, most are oil-in-water.
An emulsifier, which can also act as a surfactant (like lecithin and cetearyl alcohol), disperses and stabilizes oil droplets within the continuous aqueous phase due to the immiscibility of the two phases. The continuous phase of the emulsion may also be thickened with gum or starch to increase its viscosity, thereby reducing the risk of separation of the phases. Due to their thin consistency and ease of application, lotions are usually reserved for body formulations.
The Solutions: A solution is a liquid formulation made up of soluble solids dissolved in an aqueous phase, along with other water-soluble liquids, such as rubbing alcohol. Solutions may require preservatives if they contain too little rubbing alcohol due to their high water content.
Suspension: Solid particles remain suspended in suspensions within continuous phases due to the insoluble nature of their particles. Shaking the container before application can help recover the suspension if some settling occurs. As a result, caking is a much more serious problem, since reversing it is more difficult than settling. An exfoliator made of beads or clay is an example of a suspension.
Gels: A gel is a semisolid solution or suspension in which the water phase has thickened and become homogeneous. Since gels are less likely to settle than liquid suspensions, they are more stable. There are several types of gelling agents, including gums and cellulose derivatives. As a result of their high water content, gels are refreshing and leave no greasy residue behind. A hand sanitizer is an example of a gel.
Oils: Since oils are mixtures of miscible components, they do not require preservation, contrary to solutions. Bacteria cannot grow in oily preparations because there is no water present. It may be possible to slow down the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in oils by adding antioxidants such as vitamin E as well as storing the finished preparation in an amber bottle away from light and heat that may act as oxidation catalysts.
For a sufficient concentration of therapeutic active oils or fragrant essential oils, neutral or carrier oils are often diluted with them. Face serums, hair care products, and massage oils are most commonly used for dry skin and massages for the body.
Ointments: An ointment is a highly viscous formulation made up primarily of oils and oil-miscible ingredients and thick bases such as lanolin. The water content of ointments is very low to nonexistent. Their cosmetic appeal is poor since they are very greasy. Corticosteroids and antibiotic ointments are examples of ointments that are more commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry.
Balms: In balms, waxes and butters are highly concentrated and solidify at room temperature, making them solidified ointments. The process of making balms is very simple and does not require preservatives. The use of these products is preferred when an occlusive effect is required, for example, when severe weather damage has occurred to the skin. Lip balm and heel balm are examples of such products.
Powders: It is in the form of powder that is fine and solid, which can come loose or compacted, and that is often mixed with coloring pigments and possibly other agents in order to improve fluidity, prevent caking, or provide some benefit to the skin. Mineral powder and baby powder are examples.
Steam baths, ice cubes, and warm compresses: Many skin ailments can be treated with ice cubes, steam baths, and warm compresses, which are considered concoctions rather than real skin care preparations. They are used for various skin ailments and are often more effective than real skin care preparations. Many people believe that applying cold to the skin (ice cubes or refrigerated moisturizers) helps tighten and firm it.
Steam baths are a common practice to open pores and facilitate skin cleansing and blackhead removal. Such a “tightening” of the skin is temporary, however, and cold causes blood vessels to constrict, reducing immediate absorption of “nutrients.” Water can be heated to generate steam or water can be heated to generate steam.
Women who are pregnant or who have asthma, COPD, or cardiovascular disease should not engage in this practice. Swollen eyelids are often treated with cold and warm compresses and poultices. Keeping the compress at a temperature that is acceptable to the skin is essential. Poultices and compresses should not be used by people with rosacea or dilated blood vessels.