Spotted Turtle-Doves were released in Australia for the first time in 1870 in Melbourne. Other releases followed in Adelaide (1881), Perth (1898), and Brisbane (1912). Currently, it can be found in all of the mainland’s capitals and in many other cities. Between Mossman, northern Queensland, and Melbourne, it is found in large towns and agricultural districts. It appears that the Spotted Turtle-Dove was introduced to Australia by birds of the Chinese and Malayan races.
It is now common for Australian birds to display characteristics of all of these at the same time. From large with deep gray vents and plain shoulders around Melbourne and Adelaide, to small with whitish vents and black-streaked shoulders in northeastern Queensland, they are generally large with deep gray vents and plain shoulders.
The doves released around Melbourne in the 1940s were of the big, pale Chinese race, whereas those released in northeastern Queensland were of the small, darker Malaysian subspecies, or else their traits were selected by their environment. Eastern Australia’s agricultural land, creek margins, and swamp margins are covered with scrub.
Despite their different sizes, and food and habitat requirements, Spotted Turtle-Doves and Bar-shouldered Doves are closely related. Observations in the field indicate that native dove numbers decline and disappear as Spotted Turtle-Dove populations increase.
Spotted Turtle-Dove
The spotted Turtle-Dove is also known as the Indian Dove, Spotted Dove, and Laceneck Dove.
A Peaceful Dove may have been replaced by it on the outskirts of Adelaide. A remarkably similar diet is eaten by Spotted Turtle-Doves in Sydney, Melbourne, and Perth. Domestic animal feed makes up 44-47 percent, bread makes up 12-23 percent, and garden seeds make up 32-42 percent. Often, the biggest item is wheat, which is presumably fed to poultry.
This dove is also known as the Indian Dove, Spotted Dove, and Laceneck Dove. The spotted turtle dove measures approximately 300-320 mm in length. There is no difference between the sexes of adults. Doves have gray foreheads, crowns, and faces with pink tints. There is, however, conspicuous white spotting along the nape and back of the neck. There are dusky centers to feathers on the rest of the upper parts.
Moreover, the outer feathers of the tail are black with broad white tips on the upper side of the tail. There is a vinaceous-brown color to the throat, breasts, and stomach; a greyer or whiter color to the vent and belly. There is a blue edge to the shoulder of the primaries.
The eyes are orange-brown in color. Dark grey-brown is the color of the bill. There is a dull red-brown color to the feet. Immature birds have dull brown plumage without black and white markings on their necks. Bill and cere are brown-grey, along with eyes that are dull yellow. Pink-brown claws cover the pink-brown feet. Sand-colored is the color of the downy young.
Coocoo, croo-croor, and coo coo are the sounds Spotted Turtle-Doves make for advertising. All months of the year are nesting and breeding seasons, but mainly spring and summer. It builds its nest from sticks and roots, usually in a tree or shrub, with a diameter of 150-200 mm. White glossy eggs are laid by Spotted Turtle-Doves. Approximately 29 x 23 mm in size, the eggs are oval in shape. Both sexes incubate for about 15-16 days. About 15 days after hatching, the young fledge.
A large number of them are found in large and well-developed cities, towns, and agricultural areas. Between Brisbane and Sydney, there is a continuous bird population. India and China are its natural habitats, and Indonesia and Timar are their southernmost habitats. In Australia, there are about eight races; two of them are integrated.


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